HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF SYMBIOSIS AND ITS THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL STUDIES (GLOBAL CONTEXT)
1 О.F. HLOBA,
2 N.F. NIKITYUK
1 Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsk Hryhoriy Skovoroda State Pedagogical University
2 Balta Pedagogical College, Odesa region
Nauka naukozn. 2017, 2(96): 126-135
Section: Science and Technology History
Abstract: Research of a widespread nature phenomenon like symbiosis is dealt with from historic perspective. Evolution of its conceptual refinement is shown by use of sources found by the authors. Only the sources related to symbiosis of plants and discovering its several types by researchers are included. The contribution of researchers focusing on this phenomenon is demonstrated. It is found out that Albert Bernard Frank, a German botanist, is believed to be the first who suggested a good term to denote one of the types of symbiosis — symbiosis between roots of woody forest plants and soil (marsupials) fungi — mycorrhiza (or mushroom-root), but the priority in scientific justification of the discovery of this phenomenon belongs to Franz Mikhailovich Kamensky, a Polish scientist and professor at Odessa (former Novorossiysk) University. A contribution to the study of plants’ symbiosis was made by Simon Slenderer, a Swiss scientist, Heinrich Anton de Bari, a German botanist and microbiologist, and others. Later research found out that mycorrhiza was specific to not only perennial woody and bush plants, but also to many agricultural annuals. So, another new way to increase agricultural yields was opened up for practice. Research devoted to this important phenomenon could be possible due to development of botany, but also mycology, microbiology and plant ecology.
Keywords: symbiosis, mutualism, mycorrhiza, soil fungi, roots of higher plants, botany.