THE CONTRIBUTION OF OUTSTANDING CHEMICAL SCIENTISTS IN THE MIDDLE 19th — LATE 20th CENTURY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE, EDUCATION AND POPULARIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2022, 2(116): 103—113
Section: Science and technology history
Abstract: The article is devoted to elucidating the role of chemists in the congresses of Russian naturalists and physicians in the period from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth centuries. The preconditions for the revival of scientific life in the second half of the 19th century have been studied. Related events, such as increasing the number of publications in scientific journals (both original works and translations from foreign languages), public lecturing, as well as organizing and conducting thematic congresses have been analyzed. Special emphasis is focused on the participation of chemists in such arrangements, as this aspect has largely remained out of the attention from science historians. The importance of cooperation between natural scientists in various scientific fields is emphasized. The contribution of prominent representatives of chemical science to the holding of scientific forums is analyzed. It is shown that such well-known chemists as D.I. Mendeleev, O.M. Butlerov, M.O. Menshutkin, D.P. Konovalov, I.O. Kablukov were active participants of scientific congresses. Among them were scientists who worked during this period in Ukraine, in particular, M.M. Beketov, F.M. Garnych-Garnytsky, P.P. Alekseev, M.A. Bunge, O.A. Verigo, S.M. Reformatsky. The influence of the decisions debated at the congresses on future development of science, technology, industry, agriculture, the formation of the education system, the popularization of scientific knowledge has been studied. The measures proposed by the participants of the meetings on chemical quality control of products, in particular the establishment of food chemical laboratories and the improvement of relevant legislation, have been described. The importance of such proposals for positive changes in today’s life is emphasized. It is noted that the experience of the past can be used nowadays in processes such as import substitution, cooperation between government agencies and research institutions or education policy.
Keywords: natural sciences, congress of naturalists and physicians, section of hygiene, Kyiv University, chemical scientists.
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