1 Central State Scientific and Technical Archive of Ukraine

Nauka naukozn. 2018, 1(99): 114-137

Section: Science and Technology History
Language: Russian
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the study of the life and works of the Ukrainian astrophysicist Praskovia Georgievna Parkhomenko. The author analyzed the scientific activities of P.G. Parkhomenko which was devoted to the researching of the Solar atmosphere, the theoretical aspects of the physics of the Sun, the survey of the Minor Planets and the observation of solar and lunar eclipses (the astronomer’s publications in the leading astronomical domestic and foreign publications are considered, mainly in “Russian Astronomical Journal”, “Astronomische Nachrichten”, “Zeit. wis sen. Photophysik und Photochemie”).

P.G. Parkhomenko participated in a solar-eclipse expedition of 1914 in Genichesk, and she conducted observations of the total Solar eclipse of 1936, known as the “Great Soviet Eclipse”. Parkhomenko cooperated with famous astronomers, such as Otto Struve, Boris Gerasimovich, Vasily Fesenkov, Nikolay Evdokimov, and Nikolay Barabashov in different periods of her scientific biography. She discovered two Minor Planets: “1129 Neujmina” and “1166 Sakuntala” at the Simeiz Astronomical Observatory.

The key milestones of the scientific biography of P.G. Parkhomenko were reconstructed against the background of the development and formation of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory in the 20—30s of the 20th century. The article has taken in-depth the events related to Parkhomenko’s dismissal from the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory and defending her dissertation, that affected on the themes of the astronomer’s scientific activities. In the Crimean period Parkhomenko’s research was devoted to the development of theoretical aspects of the “equilibrium theory”, related with the process of synthesizing complex elements from simpler elements.

The present publication is based on state and departmental archives documents as well as on the oral historical materials about Parkhomenko’s scientific work at the Simeiz Astronomical Observatory, collected by the author in the framework of this investigation. Involved archival documents are first introduced into scientific use.

Keywords: astronomy, physics of the Sun, minor planet, radioactive transfer theory, eclipse, solar atmosphere, Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, “Russian Astronomical Journal”, Simeiz Astronomical Observatory, Kharkiv State University, expedition, refractor, dissertation.


  1. Archive of the Research Institute for Astronomy at Kharkov V.N. Karazin National University.
  2. Balyshev, М.А. (2004). A star of the exceptional size. Boris Petrovich Gerasimovich. Universitates. Science and Enlightenment, 4, 46–57 [in Russian].
  3. Balyshev, М.А. (2008). Events from the history of the Kharkov observatory: biographic essays. In: 200 years to astronomy in Kharkov University. Yu.G. Shkuratov (ed.). (pp. 99–154). Kharkov: Kharkov National University [in Russian].
  4. The State Archive of Kharkov Region, form 5875, register 1, case 16, 22 sheets.
  5. The State Archive of Kharkov Region, form 5875, register 1, case 341, sheet. 1-back.
  6. Dadayev, А.N. (2008). Nikolay Alexandrovich Kozyrev. In: Time and stars: in memory of the 100th anniversary of N.A. Kozyrev. L.S. Shykhobalov (ed.). (pp. 3–89). Saint-Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya [in Russian].
  7. Yevdokymov, М.М. (1931). Observation of a lunar eclipse. Publications of the Khakiv Astronomic Observatory of the Kharkiv State University, 3, 78–79 [in Ukrainian].
  8. Yevdokimov, N.N., Struve, L.О. (1914). A brief report on the expedition for observation of a full solar eclipse on August 8 (21), 1914. In: Proceedings of the Imperial Kharkov University for 1914. Kharkov: Printing and Lithography M. Zilbelberg and sons. 4 p. [in Russian].
  9. Parkhomenko, P.G. (1932). The properties of emission in the solar atmosphere. Astronomic journal, vol. 9, issue 3–4, pp. 135–139 [in Russian].
  10. Poltava calendar for 1909. Poltava: Printing and Lithography of Province Government, 1909, p. 165 [in Russian].
  11. Pikelner, S.B. (1958). Theories of “equilibrium” origin of elements. Problems of cosmogony, vol. 6, pp. 275–276 [in Russian].
  12. Physics and mathematics faculty. Proceedings of the Kharkov University for 1918 and 1919. Kharkov: Printing and Lithography M. Zilbelberg and sons, 1919, p. 24 [in Russian].
  13. Shor, V.А. (1981). In the constellation of famous names. Earth and Universe, 2, 54–58 [in Russian].
  14. Jewdokimow, N. (1924). Beobachtungen des Merkurdurchganges am 7 Mai 1924 auf der Charkower Sternwarte. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 222, no 5315, s. 175–176. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.19242221105
  15. Jewdokimow, N. (1925). Beobachtungen der Mondfinsternis 1924 August 14. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 224, no 5361, s. 159–161. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.19252240904
  16. Parchomenko, P. (1936). The structure of the Solar atmosphere. The Observatory, vol. 59, no 751, pp. 375–377.
  17. Parchomenko, P. (1940). Zur Frage der Erforschung der Sonnenatmosphare. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 270, no 4, s. 193–195. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.19402700410
  18. Societe Astronomique de France. Séance du mercredi 3 novembre 1926. Astronomie, 1926, vol. 40, pp. 495–508.

Text (PDF)