1.7

PROFESSOR OLEKSIY IVANOVICH RAZDOLSKY (1877—1942), A UKRAINIAN THEORETICAL ASTRONOMER: SCIENTIFIC BIOGRAPHY

 

M.A. BALYSHEV

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5211-3208

Central State Scientific and Technical Archive of Ukraine

Nauka naukozn. 2020, 3(109): 92-115

https://doi.org/10.15407/sofs2020.03.092

Section: Science and technology history

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the life and work of Kharkiv’s theoretical astronomer Olexiy Razdolsky who worked in the field of dynamical astronomy. Based on archival documents that were first introduced into scientific circulation, the main biographical milestones and stages of astronomer’s research work devoted to the calculation of the orbits of a number of asteroids of the Main belt of the Solar system (Hecuba, Desiderata, Moskva, Nemausa, Pandora, Roma, etc.) are highlighted. The direct astronomer’s participation in the formation of topics and organization of work in the field of celestial mechanics during the 1930s at the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory has been confirmed.

Most important were the works of Razdolsky focused on the construction of his own analytical theory of the motions of the planets of (Р + 1) / Р type using the methods of A. Poinca re, the scientist investigated the effect of eccentricity of Jupiter applying variation equations. Also, widely known astronomer’s works are the determining of the periodic orbits of the Jup iter’s Trojans asteroids: Achilles, Nestor, Patroclus, Priamus (the theory of the Minor planets of the Jupiter group). Special methods of researches, developed by the leading European and Soviet theoretical astronomers K. Bolin, M. Brendel, P. Hansen, B.V. Numerov, H. von Zeipel, G. Strac ke, which Razdolsky used to study the movement of asteroids, are highlighted. Considering the ac curacy and consistency of Razdolsky’s research, astronomical publications referred him to as an active calculator of ephemeris of Minor planets and the Moon among European and Soviet astronomer-theorists on several occasions.

Razdolsky’s development of fundamental topics, devoted to the solution of the two-body problem in a rotating field, the derivation of the theory of characteristic planets (for the Trojans), the solution of individual cases of the problem of motion of three bodies with variable mass are investigated. Scientific publications of this theoretical astronomer, which have long become a bibliographic rarity, but are no less fundamental, are analyzed. The relationship of Olexiy Razdols ky’s works with the modern research is shown.

Keywords: dynamic astronomy, Minor planets, celestial mechanics, the Trojan asteroids, periodic or bit, the Lagrange points, calculation of planetary motion, the three-body problem, Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory.

References

  1. Shkuratov, Y.G. (Ed.) (2008). 200 years of astronomy at Kharkiv University. Kharkiv: Kharkiv National University, 632 [in Russian].
  2. Duboshin, G.N. (1968). Celestial mechanics. In: Mechanics in the USSR for 50 years. Vol. 1: General and Applied Mechanics. Moscow: Publishing House «Science», Main Edition of Physics and Mathematics Literature, 416 [in Russian].
  3. Abalakin, V.K. (1995). Professor K.N. Savchenko. In: Pages of the History of Astronomy in Odessa: Part 2. Odessa, 33—39 [in Russian].
  4. Moiseev, N.D. (1935). On the article of A.I. Razdolsky «On the motion of the planets of the Jupiter group». Astronomical Journal, vol. 12, issue 4, 368 [in Russian].
  5. Schaumasse, A. (1927). Revue des travaux astronomiques. L’Astronomie, 41, 337—339.
  6. Idelson, N.I. (1930). Problems of Theoretical Astronomy. In: Transactions of II, III and IV Astronomical Congresses (1920—1928). Leningrad: Association of Astronomers of the RSFSR, 59—74 [in Russian].
  7. Kazakov, S.A. (1932). Celestial Mechanics and Orbit Calculation. In: Astronomy for XV years. A.A. Kancheeva (ed.). Moscow — Leningrad: State Technical and Theoretical Publishing House, 173—180 [in Russian].
  8. Fedorova, E.S. (2004). Nameless generation (Notes by a lawyer, former Menshevik Alexander Gunther). A series of «Ideas of the century in the history of the family». Moscow: Enlightener, 447 [in Russian].
  9. Aleksandrov, Y.V., Dudinov, V.N., Zakhozhai ,V.A. (2002). Astronomy at Kharkiv University. News of Astronomy School, vol. 3, issue 2, 5—25 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.18372/2411-6602.03.2005
  10. Archives of the Institute of Astronomy V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (1903— 1941) [in Russian, in Ukrainian, in German].
  11. Central State Archives of Supreme Authorities and Governments of Ukraine (1943). Form 4620, register 3, case 331, sheets 485—486 [in Russian].
  12. State Archives of the Kharkiv Region (1938). Form r-5875, register 1, case 16, 22 sheets [in Russian].
  13. Struve, L. (1898). Beobachtung der Mondfinsternis 1898 Juli 3. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 147, issue 3524, 323—328. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.18981472003
  14. Jewdokimow, N. (1903). Beobachtung der Mondfinsternis 1903 April 11. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 163, issue 3896, 121—122. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.19031630805
  15. Razdolsky, O.I. (1925). Application of elliptic functions to the solution of the main geodesic problem. Russian Astronomical Journal, vol. 2, issue 2, 77—88 [in Russian].
  16. Melikov, K.V. (1928). List of works on mathematical sciences published in the USSR for the period 1917—1927. Journal of the Leningrad Physical and Mathemarical Society, vol. 2, issue 1, V—XXXIX [in Russian].
  17. Razdolsky, O.I. (1926). Über die Berechnung periodischer Losungen. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 227, issue 5443, 315—318. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.19262271903
  18. Razdolsky, O.I. (1927). The theory of Minor planets of the Jupiter group. Russian Astronomical Journal, vol. 4, issue 3, 204—224 [in Russian].
  19. Razdolsky, O. (1929). Theorie der kleinen Planeten vom Typus (Р + 2) / Р. Arkiv för mate matik, astronomi och fysik, vol. 21, issue 3, 1—28.
  20. Razdolsky, O.I. (1931). Calculation of the average ellipse of the 787 Moskva orbit with taking into account of the perturbations. Astronomical Journal, vol. 8, issue 1, 75—78 [in Russian].
  21. Barabashov, N.P. (1932). Report of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory. Astronomical Journal, vol. 9, issue 3—4, 294—298 [in Russian].
  22. Razdolsky, O. (1931). Bestimmung einer mittleren Ellipse för den Planeten 472 Roma mit Berücksichtigung der Störungen. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 244, issue 5833, 7—10. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.19312440103
  23. Bronshtan, V.A. (2001). «The Voronov case»: a look through two-thirds of a century. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Moscow: Nauka, 26, 214—240 [in Russian].
  24. Razdolsky, O.I. (1931). About the movement of the Minor planet 55 Pandora. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 3, 63—65 [in Ukrainian].
  25. Kleine Planeten, Jahrgang 1932: Elemente und Oppositions-Ephemeriden (1931). Berlin: Ferd. Dümmlers Verlagsbuchhandlung (Kommissionsverlag), 144.
  26. Planeten und Monde (1932): 5635. Verzeichnis Berechner. Astronomischer Jahresbericht, 33, 142.
  27. Planeten und Monde (1934): 5627. Verzeichnis Berechner. Astronomischer Jahresbericht, 35, 138.
  28. Razdolsky, O. (1934). Sur l’Orbite periodique de la Planete Nestor. Journal des Observateurs, vol. 17, issue 7, 97—101.
  29. Barabashov, N.P. (1934). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1933. Astronomical Journal, vol. 11, issue 3, 270—274 [in Russian].
  30. Razdolsky, O.I. (1933). The New System of Elements of 51 Nemausa. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 4, 61—62 [in Ukrainian].
  31. Razdolsky, O.I. (1935). Minor planet 51 Nemausa. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 5, 103—108 [in Russian].
  32. Balyshev, М.А. (2018). The life and scientific work of Praskovia Parkhomenko, a Ukrainian astronomer: a historical and biographical study. Science and Science of Science, 1, 114—137 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/sofs2018.01.114
  33. Balyshev, М.А. (2018). Sicitur ad astra: Scientific biography and tragic destiny of astronomer Boris Evgenievich Semeykin (1900—1938). Studies in the History of Astronomy. Dubna: Phoenix, 40, 127—169 [in Russian].
  34. Barabashov, N.P. (1935). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1934. Astronomical Journal, vol. 12, issue 4, 393—395 [in Russian].
  35. Razdolsky, O.I. (1936). Application of the method of momentary oscillations to the study of the motion of the planets of the Jupiter group with regarding to the centers of libration L4 and L5. Scientific Notes of Kharkiv State University, 4, 11—32 [in Ukrainian].
  36. Balyshev, M.A. (2008). From the history of the Kharkiv Observatory: biographical researches. In: 200 years of astronomy at Kharkiv University. Y.G. Shkuratov (ed.). Kharkiv: Kharkiv National University, 99—154 [in Russian].
  37. Numerov, B. (1935). Results of the conference on theoretical astronomy and celestial mechanics. Front of science and technology, 7, 89—91 [in Russian].
  38. Barabashov, N.P. (1937). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1936. Astronomical Journal, vol. 14, issue 3, 273—275 [in Russian].
  39. Razdolsky, O.I. (1935). On the orbits of characteristic planets in moving fields. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 5, 97—102 [in Ukrainian].
  40. Razdolsky, O.I. (1936). On the application of a rotating field to the orbits of characteristic Minor planets. Scientific Notes of Kharkiv State University, 6—7, 55—66 [in Ukrainian].
  41. Planeten und Monde (1938): 5659. Verzeichnis Berechner. Astronomischer Jahresbericht, 38, 201.
  42. Barabashov, N.P. (1938). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1937. Astronomical Journal, vol. 15, issue 3, 278—279 [in Russian].
  43. Rаzdolsky, O.I. (1938). Application of the rotational field to the canonical solution of the problem of the perturbed elliptical motion of Minor planets. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 6, 25—40 [in Ukrainian].
  44. Rаzdolsky, O.I. (1938). About the orbit of a planet in the gravitational field of the Sun. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 6, 41—46 [in Ukrainian].
  45. Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Heidelberg: Springer Science & Business Media, 992. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7
  46. Barabashov, N.P. (1940). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1939. Astronomical Journal, vol. 17, issue 3, 94—96 [in Russian].
  47. Barabashov, N.P. (1941). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1940. Astronomical Journal, vol. 18, issue 3, 266—268 [in Russian].
  48. Tungalag, N., Shevchenko, V.G., Lupishko, D.F. (2003). Rotation parameters and shapes of 19 asteroids. Qualitative analysis and interpretation of data. Kinematics and physics of celestial bodies, vol. 19, issue 5, 397—406 [in Russian].
  49. Rаzdolsky, O. I. (1941). On the application of the canonical elements of Delaunay. Scientific Notes of Kharkiv State University, 23, 101—103 [in Ukrainian].

Full Text (PDF)