The history of the creation of special departments in the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the 1950s.
Article language: Russian
The history of the creation of a system of political and ideological control of print publications in the USSR is poorly researched and has its own specificity. On June 6, 1922, a decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR established the General Directorate for Literature and Publishers (Golovlit), which was responsible for the state’s policy on censorship.
By decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR of August 11, 1922, created the General Directorate for Press (Glavlit) of the General Political Enlightenment of the USSR, whose main tasks were to ensure censorship of publications in the press and publishers of fiction and scientific literature. For this purpose, special orders and decrees were issued, stating exactly what was subject to seizure and destruction. The main document for the censors was the “List of non-distributable information”. Golovlit banned the publication and distribution of materials that contained agitation against the Soviet authorities, military secrets, pornography, contributed to the growth of national and religious fanaticism.
In July 1946, by the resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the General Directorate for Literature and Publishers under the Council of Ministers of the USSR was created. In 1949, the Chief of the Soviet Union compiled a list of information prohibited for publication in the open press. The new censorship rules provided for severe restrictions on the content of the printed literature and a complete ban on publications relating to specific issues, such as Arctic and Far East development materials, materials on the activities of research and other institutions that worked on nuclear power, and rocket technology. For the most part, information of an economic nature, materials on the development of science and technology were subject to classification.
The chief of the USSR and its structural units in the oblasts carried out so-called preliminary and subsequent control over publishing activities. Previous control implied that Golovlit issued permission for the publication of books, periodicals, approval of editorial boards: editors-in-chief, opening of publishing houses and approval of their editorial staff, drawing up an indicative plan of publishing products (with determination of the volume and specific weight of publications of individual genres and consumer groups). The next review was to evaluate the publications already printed and to apply punitive measures in the event of a violation of the instructions.
The system of submission of ready works for printing at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was in accordance with the law and consisted in the fact that when printing scientific works, the possibility of open publication of which caused doubts, it was necessary to submit an author’s certificate, which indicated the sources used in the writing of the work and confirmed the possibility of their open. publication, the act of the expert commission consisting of 3-5 experts in the relevant field of knowledge admitted to the secret work, approved by the director of the institute. This act confirmed the possibility of open publication of the work. Expert commissions at each institute were appointed and supervised by an order of the director of the institute. In addition, the publication of individual publications required the decision of the Editorial and Publishing Council of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Finished works with the addition of these documents were sent to Glavlit, who made the final decision on the possibility of open publication [CDAGO of Ukraine, f. 1, op. 24, cf. 780, fol. 229-230].
In 1948, with the onset of the Cold War, secrecy measures on the content of the printed works of the USSR Academy of Sciences were strengthened. The chief of the USSR actively interfered with the censorship of editions of the academic publishing house. The chief of the USSR stated his claim regarding the secrecy of the information in the editions of the USSR Academy of Sciences in a memorandum addressed to the secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. Nazarene. The review of the department of science and higher educational institutions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine revealed the facts of breaches of secrecy and intervention of the Chief of the USSR in the publishing activity of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and proposed measures to address this issue. Archival documents from the Central State Archives of Public Associations of Ukraine (CDAGO of Ukraine) are offered for publication. The documents are presented in the original language in chronological order. In the absence of titles, documents # 1 and # 2 list the author’s titles.