THE ACADEMY FORM FOR ORGANIZATION OF R&D: OBJECTIVE TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND ANTI-ACADEMY CRITICISM
1 О.A. GRACHEV
1 V.P. RYBACHUK
1G.M. Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2018, 4(102): 72-89
Section: The 100th anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Abstract: The results of previous studies on the evolution of the Academy form for organization of R&D on national and global dimensions are summed up. Historic peculiarities and present-day tendencies in the development of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine in the context of global experiences and political, economic and social transformations in the society are highlighted. It is stressed that throughout the centuries-old history of its existence, the Academy created a powerful R&D capacities enabling for not only excellent basic research, but practical applications of applied R&D, and gained the global authority and recognition of its R&D achievements. It is shown that in our days, in spite of permanent crisis tendencies in the economy and society, the NAS of Ukraine still remains to be the most powerful and productive scientific organization in Ukraine. The evidence can be found in reliable statistical data, bibliometric studies and expert opinions, including the conclusions of foreign experts. At the same time, the Academy is as sensitive as ever before to development and implementation of effective forms for organization and management of R&D. However, a content analysis of printed and online publications in 2016—2018 focused on problems of and reasons for reforms in the Academy sector of R&D in Ukraine shows that discussions on this issue are not always built on objective and firm grounds.
The prevailing subjects of “anti-academy criticism” could be extracted from the analysis of critical opinions over the latest five years, focused on R&D management drawbacks in the NAS of Ukraine: the assumption that the Academy form for R&D organization has been outdated, followed by proposals to concentrate R&D in universities, with transferring to them the Academy infrastructures; proposals to cut the public funding of the Academy R&D with reference to the allegedly ineffective use of funds and inadequate contributions of the Academy R&D in the domestic economy; the low level of international cooperation in the Academy; the low level of basic and applied research in the Academy; the ageing of staff in the Academy, drawbacks in training of young research staff and in creating the conditions for their career growth; insufficient cooperation of the Academy with universities; slow improvements in the management system, including aspects related with evaluation of research institutes’ performance etc.
The conclusion is made that a negative perception of scientific activities, produced in the social mind, or a distorted image of domestic R&D as whole and the NAS of Ukraine in particular is unjustified and impermissible, whenever it comes to the progressive development, competitiveness and national security of Ukraine.
Keywords: academies of sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, history of Academy science, science and technology potential, research and development, organization of R&D, financing of R&D, mass media.
- Grachov, О.А., Khorevin, V.I. (2015). National Academies of Sciences in European countries. A scientific analysis. Science and Science of Science, 2, 99-112 [in Russian].
- Malitskyi, B.A., Hrachev, O.O., Kubalskyi, O.N., et al. (2918). The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: a statistical and scientometric analysis of the effectiveness of the scientific potential. V.L. Bohdanov (ed.). Kyiv: Phoenix, 344 [in Ukrainian].
- Vashulenko, O.S., Hrachev, O.O., Kavunenko, L.P., et al. (2017). International and national organizations in the field of science studies: a brief reference book. B.A. Malitsky, Yu.O. Khramov (eds.). Kyiv, 72 p. [in Ukrainian].
- Paton, B.Ye. (2015). The International Association of Academies of Sciences: two decades of consolidating scientists in the post-soviet area. Problems of science and technology history, vol. 36, issue 3, pp. 508–536 [in Russian].
- Grachov, О.А. (2018). The International Association of Academies of Sciences is 25 years old. Proceedings from: The 28th International Symposium on science policy and science history studies “The 100th anniversary the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: the past and the present”. (pp. 54–61). Kiev [in Russian].
- Grachov, О.А. (2018). Cooperation and coordination of scientific research in the IAAS framework. Science and innovations, 9, 20–24 [in Russian].
- Paton, B.Ye. (2018). Main results of the activities of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2017 and the tasks for the next period: report at the session of General Meeting of the NAS of Ukraine on April 26, 2018. Bulletin of the NAS of Ukraine, 5,8–14 [in Ukrainian].
- Advanced science and technology developments of the NAS of Ukraine: a reference edition. Kyiv, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.nas.gov.ua/RDOutput/UA/book2017/ Pages/Default.aspx [in Ukrainian].
- The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Retrieved from http://www.nas.gov.ua/UA/Pages/default.aspx [in Ukrainian].
- Strikha, M., Grinevich, L. The Ukrainian R&D in the European “mirror”: the necessary epilog. Weekly mirror, 2018, 1, 14–20 January [in Russian].
- Petrushyna, Т.О. (2017). The R&D performance in Ukraine (on the basis of domestic and foreign experts’ reviews). Bulletin of the NAS of Ukraine, 11, 66–80 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/visn2017.11.066
- The zombie-academy: scientists-pensioners in the NAS of Ukraine are not capable to stand out in the competition in the global R&D. Their support costs nearly 3.7 billionUAH. 2018, 16 January. Retrieved from http://texty.org.ua/pg/article/ editorial/read/82121/Zombiakademija_vchenipensionery_NAN_Ukrajiny_ne_vytrymujut_konkurenciji [in Ukrainian].
- The series of investigations: how the Academy of Sciences spent 150 billion 2018, 17 January. Retrieved from https://biggggidea.com/project /tsikl-rozsliduvan-yak-akademiya-nauk-potratila-150-mlrd-grn/
- Google. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/
- Loktev, V.M. (2018). Knowledge is potency? Bulletin of the NAS of Ukraine, 1, 72–83 [in Ukrainian].
- Yukhnovskyi, I.P. Ukraine needs to be rebuilt. Arguments and facts, 2018, issue 11, March 14.
- Strelko, V. Who benefits from defamation of the NAS of Ukraine? Weekly mirror, 2018, issue 7, February 24 – March 20 [in Russian].
- Malitsky, B.A. The problem of sound evaluation of the quality of researcher’s work goes beyond the simplistic scientometric indexes: an interview. Weekly mirror, 2017, issue 38, October 14–20 [in Russian].
- Popovych, О.S. What needs to be reformed in the science and technology sphere of Ukraine? Commons, 2017, November, 27. Retrieved from http://commons.com.ua/uk/tak-sho-zh-treba-reformuvati-v-naukovo-tehnologichnij-sferi-ukrayini/.
- Popovych, О.S. The National Academy of Ukraine in the eyes of science policy researchers: the answer to the article about “zombie-academy”. Commons, 2018, February 12. Retrieved from https://commons.com.ua/uk/nacionalna-akademiya-nauk-ukrayini-ochima-naukoznavciv/
- Soloviyov, V.P. “Optimization” of R&D by renaming. Weekly mirror, 2018, issue 29, August 11–17 [in Russian].
- Koers A.W. (2008). Academies of sciences and the transition to knowledge societies: challenges and perspectives for the academies of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. UNESCO document. Science policy series, issue 6, 67 p. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001806/180628e.pdf
- Decree of the President of Ukraine “On commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine” No136/2017 from 18.05.2017. Retrieved from https://www.president.gov.ua/ documents/1362017-21878 [in Ukrainian].