“FOR THE NATIVE LAND AND PEOPLE…”
1State University of Infrastructure and Technologies
Nauka naukozn. 2019, 1(103): 133-146
Section: Science and technology history
Abstract: The article is devoted to the life and work of Danylo Zabolotny, a prominent Ukrainian epidemiologist, President of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (AUAS) (1928–1929), the founder of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The situation within AUAS at late 20s of the past century is described, with highlighting the increasing political pressures on it and reasons behind the election of Zabolotny as AUAS president. The choice fell on academician Zabolotny because he had not been engaged in clashes between two main groups of academicians, which he could not do as he had worked in S.- Petersburg that time. Being a Ukrainian by birth, a peasant by origin, but an educated person, a graduate of two universities, with the proficiency in Greek, Latin, French, English and German language, a scientist with the worldwide merit, and also a good-natured man knowing and fond of literature and arts, he perfectly fit for this choice.
Detailed biographic account of D. Zabolotny is given, especially his research work in the field of epidemiology and his participation in scientific expeditions before his election as UASA president. It is emphasized that it was his active participation in anti-plague expeditions that made him widely recognized, and it was in 1898 that he was invited to S.-Petersburg women’s medical institute to teach the course of bacteriology, which success laid to organization of the first cathedra of medical bacteriology in Russia.
By use of notes written by scientists of that time it is demonstrated that Zabolotny’s presidency fell upon the difficult time for the Ukrainian Academy, when the soviet power began to mingle with its life. The president’s duties in times of the consolidating totalitarian regime and rapid “sovietization” of the scientific community were, therefore, quite difficult to fulfill. The following events showed that even a contained, intelligent and easy-going person like Zabolotny sometimes failed to win in fights with the state. Internal contradictions in the Academy could not be easily mitigated, as the president had to cope with problems of moral and ethical mature. The Zabolotny’s effort related to organization of the institute for microbiology is highlighted.
Keywords: All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Presidium of All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, president, People’s Commissariat of Education, institute for microbiology.
- Conclusions and recommendations of the Commission of the People’s Commissariat on Education of the Ukr.SSR on the inspection of the All-Ukrainian Academy of sciences. The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine, form 1, register 6, case 147, sheets 176–194 [in Ukrainian].
- Ibid., sheets 131–132 [in Ukrainian].
- Ibid., case 149, sheets 146–147 [in Ukrainian].
- Bilay, V.I. (1979). Danylo Kyrylovych Zabolotnyi. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 87 [In Ukrainian].
- Zabolotnyi D.K. (1956). Autobiography. In: Selected works. 2 Vols. Vol. 1. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 11–13 [in Russian].
- Odesa regional state archive, form 2147, case 73, sheet 16 [in Ukrainian].
- Bilay, V.I. (1987). Daniil Kirilovich Zabolotnyi. Kiev: Naukova dumka,126 [in Russian].
- Yefremov, S.O. (1997). Diaries, 1923–1929. Kyiv: “Hazeta ‘RADA’”, 848 p. [in Ukrainian].
- Records of the session of the Council of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences from May 3, 1928. Institute for Manuscript of Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine, from 1, case 26393, sheets 3-3 зв. [in Ukrainian].
- Kulchytskyi, S., Pavlenko, Yu., Ruda, S., Khramov, Yu. (2000). The history of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the socio-political context. 1918–1998. Kyiv: Phoenix, 527 [in Ukrainian].
- The Central State Archive of Supreme Power and Administration Bodies of Ukraine, form 166, register 7, case 198, sheets 58–59 [in Ukrainian].
- The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine, form 1, register 16, case 1, sheet 179 [in Ukrainian].
- Directive of the Council of People’s Commissars of the UkrSSR on admission of new full members to the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences and on their selection procedure. Kharkiv, April 16, 1929. In: Collection of Laws of the UkrSSR, issue 12, art. 89, pp. 456–460 [in Ukrainian].
- The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine, form1, register 20, case 2992, sheet 7 [in Ukrainian].
- Matveieva, L.V., Tsyhankova, E.H. (1997). A.Yu. Krymskyi – the permanent secretary of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences: Selected correspondence. Кyiv: Oberehy, 172 p. [in Ukrainian].
- The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine, form 1, register 20, case 2705, sheet 31 [in Ukrainian].
- Semashko, N.A. (1930). In memory of the publicly active academician (D.K. Zabolotnyi). Hygiene and epidemiology, 3, 1–2 [in Russian].
- Kvitnitskiy-Ryzhov, Yu.N. (1964). The prominent Ukrainian scientist-medic F.Z. Omelchenko. Soviet health care, vol. 23, issue 7, pp. 80–83 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.2307/126466
- Onopriienko, V., Shcherban, T. (2008). The statute of the Microbiological Institute of the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kyiv. In: Sources on the history of the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kyiv. Kyiv: “Information and analytical agency”, 230–233 [in Ukrainian].
- Institute of manuscripts of Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine, case 31840, sheet 2 [in Ukrainian].
- The deed of gift issued by F.Z. Omelchenko, on the donation of his own Microbiology Institute to the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Ibid., form 1, case 26294, sheet 10–11 [in Ukrainian].
- Ruda, S.P. (2004). Bacteriologist Fedir Omelchenko (the 140th anniversary of the birth). In: Ukrainian studies: annual calendar – 2005. Kyiv, pp. 177–180 [in Ukrainian].
- Drobotko, V.H. (1948). The work of Microbiology Institute named after academician D.K. Zabolotnyi over the time of its existence (1929–1947). Microbiological journal, vol. 9, issue 2/3, pp. 5–11 [in Ukrainian].
- Directive of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the UkrSSR on commemoration of the President of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Member of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee and the Central Executive Committee of the Union of SSR, Academician D.K. Zabolotnyi, issued December 12, 1930 in the city of Kharkiv. The Central State Archive of Supreme Power and Administration Bodies of Ukraine, form166, register 9, case 871, sheets 70–71 [in Ukrainian].