TARGETED RESEARCH: “INTERNALLY” AND “EXTERNALLY” ORIENTED SCIENCE
Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2020, 3(109): 64-77
Section: Problems of science and technology potential
Abstract: The article provides comparative and axiological analysis of an “internally” oriented science, driven primarily by cognitive factors, and an “externally” oriented science stimulated by the factors of social, economic, industrial, political, technological or other origin. “Internally” oriented science is a so-called classical science, driven by researcher’s cognitive interests; it discovers the laws of the objective world with empirical and theoretical means. “Externally” oriented science, non-classical science, is characterized by particular forms of research organization, ways to engage science with social institutions, transformation of scientists’ motivation and values, recording of research results and ways of their assessment. A review of specific concepts is made, proposed by Ukrainian and foreign scientists: “problem-oriented research”, “research on demand”, “targeted” research, “problem-oriented research”, “mission-oriented” research or research as a response to the “challenges” faced by the mankind. Their characteristic features are: interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary organization; knowledge instrumentality, algorithmicity, contextuality; researchers’ practical interest; ethical awareness, addressing the possible risks of implementing the advanced technologies; specific standards for research results evaluation. It is concluded that “externally” oriented science is considered to be practically efficient. But it is also subject to certain risks: when science is considered only as a mean for wealth creation, cognitive functions such as making a picture of the world, fostering of rational thinking, training of skilled personnel and independent experts will be lost. Targeted research has to combine both “internal” and “external” orientation and contribute to implementing the higher cultural values.
Keywords: targeted research, mission-oriented research, transdisciplinarity, basic research, applied research.
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