GLOBAL TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM AND THE POSITION OF RESEARCH PROCESS IN IT
1Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2019, 1(103): 46-67
Section: Science and education
Abstract: The present-day phase of human civilization, referred to as the transition to the knowledgebased economy and society, is characterized by new requirements to higher education. The higher education sector, being regarded from the knowledge-based economy perspective as a supplier of high skilled personnel and an effective instrument for knowledge dissemination, determines the global competitive positions of countries. It raises the need for regular monitoring of the tendencies in the higher education sector, underlying its long-term effectiveness.
The essence of global tendencies in higher education in 21 century is highlighted: inclusiveness and dynamism, focus of the education quality on the final result, implementation of life-long and distance learning, diversification and internationalization, individualization, transformation of contents, focus on R&D. The R&D component of the higher education sector is determined by this sector’s contribution in domestic R&D, with analyzing the shares of R&D performers in higher education sector by county and region. It is demonstrated that the R&D component in Ukraine, although resting on the solid legal fundament, still remains marginal if measured by the share of R&D performers in the total R&D performers in the country, which is caused by the specific evolution of the national science and technology system. Problems in the Ukrainian higher education system are outlined. It is shown that the policy of establishing research universities in Ukraine in 2009—2013 was a virtual failure, because instead of radical reforms in university R&D and universities per se on competitive basis, it turned to be a tool for redistributing budget financing in favor of selected universities, while politicians were seeking to manipulate with the research university status to improve their public ratings. The political priorities promoting growth in the numbers of needs skilled staff in the science and technology sector are illustrated. It is argued that any reform in the national sector of higher education needs to focus on reorganization of R&D activities in a way allowing for high quality R&D results rather than on creating new entities within the universities.
Keywords: higher education, higher education establishment, universities, training, research and development.
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