CREATING THE UKRAINIAN ACACEMY OF SCIENCES IN KYIV IN 1918: CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
1 H.А. DORONINA,
1 Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2018, 1(99): 92-113
Section: Science and Technology History
Abstract: A ramified system of higher education establishments existed in Ukraine in late 19 — early 20 century, with some portions of research performed in humanitarian, natural and technical fields. This gives grounds to say that the conditions for creating the Academy of Sciences as an entity bringing together outstanding scientists on radically new principles but with government support and organizing an extensive network of research in diversified fields existed at early 20 century.
A favorable background for creating the Ukrainian Academy existed in the Western Ukraine. An attempt to establish it was made in the city of Lviv in 1873 by creating T. Shevchenko Scientific Society with the mission of promoting the Ukrainian letters. The Ukrainian Scientific Society was created in 1907 in Kyiv, which members were best representatives of the Ukrainian intel lectual elite.
The issue of the need for real effort to create the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (UAS) was raised in times of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, on March 29, 1917. However, the title of “Ukrainian Scientific Society” could not be easily replaced with “Academy”, because the national academy of sciences is a radically new entity of the state in the science field.
These and other events accompanying the UAS establishment in late 19 — early 20 century are discussed. The detailed chronology of events in the year of 1918 is given against the backdrop of political powers in that period, from the Ukrainian People’s Republic to the Hetmanat and the Directory, till the coming of bolsheviks. Efforts of M.S. Hrushevskiy, a prominent Ukrainian politician and scientist, and V.I. Vernadskiy, an outstanding scientist-naturalist, around the UAS creation are highlighted, with outlining the differences in their visions of the UAS model. An account of the work of the Commission for Elaboration of Draft Law on the Establishment of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, objectives and structure of the UAS is given. The original Law on the Ukrainian State on the Establishment of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in the City of Kyiv is reproduced. Attempts of some members of the Ukrainian Scientific Society to challenge the legitimacy of the newly established UAS are mentioned.
The reason behind falsification of the true date of the UAS creation is shown. The General Session of UAS took place on February 12, 1919, with the resolution of the National Commissioner on Education of the Bolshevik government delivered. The Session assigned the commission consisting of the UAS Board members and representatives of the UAS departments to inspect the premises of a mansion (former boarding school) and elaborate the procedure for transfer of the premises to UAS. This day, February 12, 1919, was considered by the soviet historiography as the date when UAS was established, contrary to the true date of November 14, 1918.
Keywords: Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (UAS), T. Shevchenko Scientific Society, Ukrainian Scientific Society, Ukrainian Central Rada, Ministry of Education and Arts, Commission for Elaboration of Draft Law on the Establishment of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, General Session of UAS, statute, Department.
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