1 Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine

Nauka naukozn. 2021, 3(113): 121-130

Section: Science and technology history
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: The article is devoted to popularization physico-chemist J. Kistyakivsky, the author of scientific works and developments in explosion physics, in particular kinetics of reactions in the gas phase, structure of polyatomic molecules, thermochemistry of organic compounds, creation of new explosives for constructing the first atomic bomb, little-known in Ukraine.

The purpose of the study is to reproduce the scientific, technical, organizational and social activities of the scientist, as very little has been written about the life and scientific heritage of J. Kistyakivsky in Ukraine.

The historiography and source base of the study are scientific publications on the physics of the explosion, the work of foreign colleagues involved in projects for the creation of the American atomic bomb, photochemistry, kinetics and reaction mechanisms. The methodological framework of the study was the principles of historicism, objectivity and reliability; general scientific, interdisciplinary and special-historical methods: analysis, synthesis, classification, problem-chronological, comparative-historical.

Research and science & technology developments of J. Kistyakivsky, concerned with physics of explosion and explosives and the creation of the atomic bomb, are highlighted; his main works in the field of photochemistry are shown. The life and creative path of the scientist and his contribution to the negotiations between the USA and the USSR on nuclear disarmament are described. The history of atomic bomb development and methods for its production and obtaining high-purity materials are briefly covered. It is substantiated that the historical portrait of J. Kistyakivsky and his significant contribution to the world science and technology is insufficiently covered.

Keywords: J. Kistyakivsky, reaction kinetics, creation of nuclear weapons, explosives, disarmament, international security.


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