YEVHEN OSKAROVYCH PATON AND HIS ACADEMIC AND ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF WELDING: THE STORY OF SUCCESS
1 National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
2Paton Institute for Electric Welding of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2019, 1(103): 68-96
Section: Science and technology history
Abstract: The article is devoted to the history of rise and activities of the Institute for Electric Welding in the city of Kyiv and the biography of E.O. Paton, its founder and director. As a bridge builder, Paton was focused dealt issues of enhancing effectiveness and reliability of constructed bridges, including the possibility for the replacement of labor intensive and cost-ineffective riveting. He realized that the future would be with electric welding, but the broad-scale application of welding as a reliable and effective method for metals connection would require a system of technological and economic studies. In 1929, Paton created Electric Welding Laboratory within the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and in 1934, the Institute for Electric Welding (IEW) was created by Government Directive, which, from the beginning, focused on doing works for the industry. Paton was the first in Ukraine to argue that any research institution of technical specialization had to incorporate three units: a research unit as such, a design bureau and trial workshops or a factory. The information about the IEW operation is given by chronological periods: prewar period: the IEW contribution to the worldwide theory and practice of arc welding; war period: the evacuation of IEW to Ural, the city of Nizhniy Tagil, doing research and technical tasks related with the automatic welding of armor, the contribution to the creation of the famous tank Т-34; after war period till the Paton’s death in 1953: doing tasks (after re-evacuation of IEW to Kyiv) to help the industry of Ukraine and other regions of the USSR, hit by the occupation, the mass-scale applications of the arc welding; turning of IEW into a advanced powerful research center well established and developed design and production facilities; applications of welding in bridge building in place of riveting; the construction of an all-welded highway bridge over the river Dnieper in Kyiv, the largest bridge of this kind in the world.
Keywords: Paton school, Institute for Electric Welding, hidden arc welding, Tank Т-34, welded bridges, main pipelines, underwater welding, electroslag welding.
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