1G.M. Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine

Nauka naukozn. 2018, 2(100): 68-90


Section: Development of Science and Technology Potential

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of gender parity of researchers in the context of international gender standards and policies to promote the effective use of the country’s intellectual resources adopted by Ukraine. The international documents of the United Nations, OECD and other organizations related to gender issues in the scientific sphere are analyzed. The main gender characteristics of the Ukrainian R&D personnel are revealed using statistical data of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine on gender distribution of R&D personnel in Ukraine, by education level, 2016; change in the number of researchers and women researchers in Ukraine in 2006— 2015; gender distribution of Ukrainian researchers by discipline in 2015; share of women researchers by scientific degree and discipline in 2015, % of the total researchers; share of women researchers with Candidate of Science and Doctor of Science degree by sector of activity in 2016, % of the total scientific degrees holders in the sectors.

The level of women’s participation in R&D is high (46.3 %) compared to other countries, but horizontal and vertical gender segregations were revealed. Women researchers tend to be underrepresented in physical and mathematical (28.2 %) and technical sciences (37.4 %). The proportion of women in Doctor of Science holders (25/3 %) is much less than that in the categories of researchers and Candidates of Science. Larger shares of women are awarded Doctor of Science degree in traditionally “female” disciplines like psychology (60.6 % women in the total of Doctor of Sciences holders), pedagogy (59.1 %), art criticism (56.3 %), sociology (52.6 %), geography (50.0 %), physical training and sports (50.0 %), social sciences (45.2 %), compared to 9.7 % of female Doctor of Science holders in physical and mathematical sciences, or 12.4 % in technical sciences, or 16.9 % in chemical sciences.

This circumstance is argued to negatively affect the achievement of gender parity in the management of scientific teams and gendered policy decisions in research and development system. It is concluded that the feminization of science in Ukraine, which was observed in recent decades, should not be viewed unambiguously as a positive trend. The increased number of female researchers is a consequence of the deterioration in the financial support of R&D, the reduction of the prestige of R&D jobs and the outflow of male researchers’ talent. Gendersensitive science policy should consider the problem of vertical and horizontal segregation in science; create more favorable conditions for the career development of talented female researchers for the benefit of science and innovation, but not at the expense of the scientific activities of male researchers.

Keywords: R&D personnel, international organizations, gender parity, gender studies, gender segregation, feminization of science, science policy, research and development.


  1. Lee H., Pollitzer E. (2016). Gender in science and innovation as component of inclusive socioeconomic growth. 2nd ed. London: Portia Ltd.
  2. Women and Science. UNESCO. 2018. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/priority-areas/gender-and-science/for-women-in-science-programme/ (date of access 15.01.2018).
  3. UNESCO science report: towards 2030. UNESCO. Retrieved fromhttp://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002354/235407e.pdf (date of access 12.05.2017).
  4. Gender studies in modern Ukraine: proceedings of a student scientific and practical conference. S.O. Filonenko (ed.) Berdiansk: Berdiansk State Pedagogical University, 2015, 96p. [in Ukrainian].
  5. The woman in research and education: the past, present, and future: proceedings of an international scientific and practical conference. Kyiv: “Zhinocha hromada”, “Zhinka v nautsi”, 1999 [in Ukrainian].
  6. The woman in research and education: the past, present, and future: proceedings of the 4th International scientific and practical conference, devoted to the 130th anniversary of women’s higher education in Ukraine. V. Troian (ed.). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  7. Women and men on senior positions in Ukraine. UNDP in Ukraine. September 2017. Retrieved from http://www.ua.undp.org/content/ukraine/uk/home/library/democratic_governance/Women-and-Men-in-Leadership-Position.html (date of access 15.01.2018).
  8. Zhurzhenko, Т. (2001). The social reproduction and the gender policy in Ukraine. Kharkov: Folio [in Russian].
  9. Kis,О. Gender studies in Ukraine: current development, problems, prospects. The independent cultural studies magazine “Ї”. Retrieved from http://www.ji-magazine.lviv.ua/seminary/2000 /sem17-08.htm (date of access 15.04.2017) [in Ukrainian].
  10. Kravets, V.P., Hovorun, T.V., Kikinezhdi, O.M., et al. (2013). Gender research: applied aspects. Ternopil: Navchalna knyha – Bohdan, 448 [in Ukrainian].
  11. Troian, V. Woman and research: friends or rivals? Weekly mirror, 2002, issue1, p. 12.
  12. Vlasiuk, H. Woman in the Ukrainian R&D: an uninvited guest. 2014. Retrieved fromhttp://povaha.org.ua/zhinka-v-ukrajinskij-nautsi-neprohana-hostya/ (date of access 15.04.2017) [in Ukrainian].
  13. Isaienko, V. (2014). Woman in love with research. Veterinary medicine in Ukraine, 3(217), 4–6 [in Ukrainian].
  14. Removska, О. Are women still lone rangers in R&D? Radio Liberty. March 2013.Retrieved from https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/24923390.html (date of access 15.04.2017).
  15. Agamova, N.S., Allakhverdyan,А.G. (2000). Russian women in R&D and higher school: the science history and science studies perspectives: (the 150th anniversary of S.V. Kovalevskaya’s birth). Problems of science and technology history, 1, 141–153 [in Russian].
  16. Vinokurova, N.А. (1999). Women and men in R&D: the double portrait. Sociological studies, 4, 82–86 [in Russian].
  17. Antonova, Т.А. (2016). The dynamics of R&D staff in the Republic of Belarus: a gender analysis. Proceedings from: International scientific conference “The dialog of cultures in the era of global risks”. 2 Vols. Vol. 1, pp. 537–540. Minsk: Publishing Center of the Belorussian State University [in Russian].
  18. Bogdanova, I.F. (2004). Woman in R&D: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Sociological studies, 1, 103–112 [in Russian].
  19. Lykhkivi, E. (2010). Women in R&D. On the way to the balanced society: women and men in Estonia. The Ministry of Social Affairs of the Estonian Republic. Tallinn, 50–51 [in Russian].
  20. Mirskaya, Ye.Z., Martynova, Ye.А. (1993). Women in R&D. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences, vol. 63, issue 8, 693–700 [in Russian].
  21. Bulkin, I.А. (2017). Change in the structure of researchers in the NAS of Ukraine: gender aspect. Part I. Science and Science of Science, 3(97), 74–86 [in Russian].
  22. Bulkin, I.А. (2017). Change in the structure of researchers in the NAS of Ukraine: gender aspect. Part I. Science and Science of Science, 4(98), 46–64 [in Russian].
  23. Gender in the global research landscape. Analysis of research performance through a gender lens across 20 years, 12 geographies, and 27 subject areas. Elsevier. 2017. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/265661/ElsevierGenderReport_final_for-web.pdf (date of access 20.04.201712.03.2018).
  24. Beede, D., Julian, T., Langdon, D. et al. (2011). Women in STEM: A Gender gap to innovation. U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of the Chief Economist. ESA Issue Brief No 04-11. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1964782
  25. Gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship: Final report to the MCM – 2012. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/employment/50423364.pdf. p. 17. (date of access 19.04.2017).
  26. Klasen, S., Lamanna, F. (2009). The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth: New evidence for a panel of countries. Feminist Economics, 15 (3), 91–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700902893106
  27. UNDP in Ukraine. Retrieved from http://www.ua.undp.org/content/ukraine/uk/home/ ourwork/sdg-overview.html/ (date of access 20.04.2017).
  28. UN Women. 2017. Retrieved from http://www.unwomen.org/en/about-us/about-un-women (date of access 12.03.2017).
  29. UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2017). Fact Sheet No43 March 2017 FS/2017/SCI/43. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/fs43-women-in-science-2017-en.pdf (date of access 09.03.2018).
  30. Research and innovation quality through equality: Gender-based research, innovation and development for sustainable economies and societal wellbeing. Report from the 2016 European Gender Summit to the EC and EP. Retrieved from http://gender-summit.com/attachments/article/1261/2016 (date of access 20.04.2017).
  31. She figures 2015. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/pub_gender_ equality/she_figures2015-final.pdf (date of access 12.04.2017).
  32. L’Oréal – UNESCO: For Women in Science. 2018. Retrieved from https://www.forwomeninscience.com/en/home (date of access 03.2018)
  33. Gender and STEM Network. Retrieved from http://www.genderandstem.com/ (date of access 20.04.2017).
  34. AWIS. Retrieved from https://www.awis.org/research-center/ (date of access 23.04.2017).
  35. The Law of Ukraine “Ensuring equal rights and opportunities for women and men”. Bulletin of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (VRU), 2005, issue52, p.
  36. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017. 2018. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-gender-gap-report-2017 (Date of access 03.2018).

Text (PDF)