THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UKRAINE: THE PHENOMENON OF STATEHOOD AND THE CREATOR OF NEW KNOWLEDGE
1G.M. Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2018, 4(102): 3-32
Section: The 100th anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Abstract: The author’s thoughts and opinions about the historic evolution of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine are given. The author’s response to ones standing for the Academy disbandment along with transferring its institutions to the universities is supported by data and facts showing how the integration of Academy and university R&D actually happens. A review of the creation of the Academy of Sciences in Ukraine is given with highlighting the contribution of its first president V.I. Vernadsky in it and external and internal factors that determined the vector of its thematic and functional evolution in 20—40s of the past century. Figures and facts highlighting the Academy’s operation in various historic periods are shown: the post-war period (1946—1950) — targeting of R&D to economic needs, organizational improvements, rehabilitation and enhancement of research, material and technical facilities of the prewar period, extension of research in new scientific fields and areas; the unfolding new science and technology revolution (60s of the past century) — organizational improvements in the Academy, intended to enhance its performance, successfully achieved under the leadership of the newly elected president B.Ye. Paton and allowed to transform the Academy into a networking centrist scientific and science & technology platform for the national innovation system, with the upward dynamics of the Academy’s input and output indicators; 80s of the past century, with the Academy transformed into a science and technology center; and the period of independent Ukraine, with market-based transitions and crisis affecting the Academy staff, facilities and performance. The data and facts about the Academy of Sciences in various periods of its postwar history give evidence of the distinction between its reorganization in soviet times, intended to modernize the Academy in view of the state power objectives, and the requirements of the Ukrainian government on reforming domestic R&D without a сlеar long-term strategy of economic development in Ukraine. It is demonstrated by figures and facts that the NAS of Ukraine did preserve its science and technology capacities in a number of priority areas of R&D in spite of economic crises of the latest decades.
Keywords: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, universities, university model of R&D organization, statehood, All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, research institutions, basic research, national innovation system.