1.7

THE LIFE AND SCIENTIFIC WORK OF PROFESSOR MSTISLAV SERGIYOVYCH SAWRON (1902–1943), A UKRAINIAN ASTROPHYSICIST: A HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY

 

M.A. BALYSHEV

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5211-3208

Central State Scientific and Technical Archive of Ukraine

Nauka naukozn. 2020, 2(108): 96-124

https://doi.org/10.15407/sofs2020.02.096

Section: Science and technology history

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article focuses on the studying the life and work of the Ukrainian astronomer M.S. Sawron, a specialist in the field of galactic and extragalactic astronomy. This research paper has highlighted the stages of the scientific path of a talented scientist, an astronomer-observer, who studied the physical conditions of the Sun, successfully photographed the minor planets and asteroids of the main belt (Aquitania, Vesta, Iris, Flora, Ceres), implemented a series of long-term observations of variable stars.

Sawron was one of the first Ukrainian astronomers who studied variable stars, in particular, Novae in the constellations Hercules, Aquila and Lacerta, which, according to modern data, are intermediate polar (DQ Herculis, V603 Aquilae). The astronomer studied the Delta Cygni triple-star system, observed rare O-type stars, and photographed the famous globular clusters M13 in the constellations Hercules and M15 in the constellation Pegasus, which also contains many variable stars; investigated the long-period comet Johnson (1936).

At the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory Sawron performed a fundamental research work devoted to the problem of photographic rays’ absorption in the Earth’s atmosphere. As part of the delegation of Kharkiv astronomers, he took part in the observations of the so-called «The Great Soviet Solar Eclipse» — the total Solar Eclipse of 1936.

Examples of cooperation of an astronomer with leading scientists of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory prof. B.P. Gerasimovich, prof. M.P. Barabashov, B.E. Semeykin and P.G. Parkhomenko; Sawron’s participation in the development of the instrumental base of the observatory were provided.

The administrative and pedagogical activity of the scientist in institutions of higher education is considered: at Gorky Kharkiv State University, Skovoroda Kharkiv State Pedagogical Institute, in particular as dean of the geographical and physical-mathematical faculties, head of the department of astronomy.

The activity of prof. M.S. Sawron during the Second World War, his participation in the organization of the Council of Sciences in Kharkiv and his work in the Scientific and technical office during the German occupation of the city in 1941—1943 are substantiated by documents.

Keywords: astrophysics, galaxy, minor planet, variable stars, DQ Herculis, nebula, «The Great Soviet Solar Eclipse», extragalactic objects, Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv State Pedagogical Institute.

References

  1. Barabashov, M.P., Lebedinsky, L., Sawron, M.S., Shingarev, L.I. (1935). Observation of a temporary star in the constellation of Hercules. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 5, 1—2 [in Ukrainian].
  2. Andronov, I.L. (2008). Gravi-Magnetic Rotators іn Cataclysmic Binary Stars. Journal of Physical Studies, vol. 12, issue 2, 1—11 [in Ukrainian].
  3. Vavilova, I. B. (2008). Planetary scientific school of Academician N.P. Barabashov. In: 200 years of astronomy at Kharkiv University. Y.G. Shkuratov (ed.). Kharkiv: Kharkiv National University, 2008, 175—179 [in Russian].
  4. Bakirov, V.S., Dukhopelnikov, V.М., Zaytsev, B.P. et al. (2004). V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University over 200 years. Kharkiv: Folio, 750 [in Ukrainian].
  5. Shkuratov, Y.G. (Ed.) (2008). 200 years of astronomy at Kharkiv University. Kharkiv: Kharkiv National University, 632 [in Russian].
  6. Kukhtin, A.V. (2012). Development of historical education and science at Kharkiv State Pedagogical Institute in 1933—1941. Collection of scientific works. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, 43, 120—126 [in Ukrainian].
  7. Ponomarenko, R.О. (2008). Scientific activity in Kharkiv during the occupation in 1941— 1943. Issues of History of Science and Technology, 3, 65—70 [in Ukrainian].
  8. Zaytsev, B.P., Posokhov, S.I. (2001). Memories of the war in the documents. Universitates. Science and Enlightenment, 3, 48—59 [in Russian].
  9. Personal documents of M.S. Sawron. (1927—1943). Archive of the Institute of Astronomy at Karazin Kharkiv National University (1927—1943) [in Russian, in Ukrainian].
  10. Archive of the Russian Academy of Science. (1931). form 555, register 4, case 552, 2 sheets [in Russian].
  11. State Archive of the Kharkiv Region (SAKhR). (1934). Form r-2792, register 1, case 3, sheet 10 [in Ukrainian].
  12. SAKhR. (1934). Form r-2792, register 1, case 4, sheet 3 [in Russian, in Ukrainian].
  13. SAKhR. (1936). Form r-2792, register 1, case 20, sheet 190 [in Ukrainian].
  14. SAKhR. (1936). Form r-2792, register 1, case 21, sheets 40—41, 44, 45 [in Ukrainian].
  15. SAKhR. (1941—1943). Form r-3076, register 1, case 1, 138 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  16. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 4, 9 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  17. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 5, sheet 135 [in Ukrainian].
  18. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 6, 80 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  19. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 15, 19 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  20. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 21, sheet 323 [in Ukrainian].
  21. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 23, 107 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  22. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 26, 43 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  23. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 29, 172 sheets (in Russian, in Ukrainian, in German].
  24. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 43, 57 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  25. SAKhR. (1942). Form r-3076, register 1, case 45, sheet 186 [in Ukrainian].
  26. SAKhR, (1942). Form r-3081, register 1, case 55, sheets 1—2 [in Ukrainian].
  27. SAKhR. (1936). Form r-4293, register 1, case 9, 215 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  28. SAKhR. (1936). Form r-4293, register 1, case 10, sheet 115 [in Ukrainian].
  29. SAKhR. (1938). Form r-4293, register 1, case 23, sheets 118—120 [in Ukrainian].
  30. SAKhR. (1938). Form r-4293, register 1, case 24, sheet 58 [in Ukrainian].
  31. SAKhR. (1939). Form r-4293, register 1, case 50, sheet 230 [in Ukrainian].
  32. SAKhR. (1939). Form r-4293, register 1, case 51, sheet 171 [in Ukrainian].
  33. SAKhR. (1940). Form r-4293, register 1, case 60, sheet 133 [in Ukrainian].
  34. SAKhR. (1940). Form r-4293, register 1, case 66, sheets 26, 60. [in Ukrainian].
  35. SAKhR. (1940). Form r-4293, register 1, case 67, sheet 101 [in Ukrainian].
  36. SAKhR. (1941). Form r-4293, register 1, case 76, sheets 217, 246 [in Ukrainian].
  37. Archive of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (1933). Register of D.E.T. in 1933— 1941, case 243, 4 sheets [in Ukrainian].
  38. Memorial book of the Poltava Region for 1915. Poltava: Tipo-Litographiya Gubern. Pravlinnya, 1915, p. 231 [in Russian].
  39. Sawron, М.S. (1935). Distribution of extragalactic nebulae. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 5, 39—47 [in Ukrainian].
  40. Balyshev, M.A. (2018). A Historical and Biographical Study of the Life and Scientific Work of Boris Semeykin (1900—1938). Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies, vol. 34, issue 2, 98—101. https://doi.org/10.3103/S0884591318020022
  41. Barabashov, N.P. (1932). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkov State University in 1931. Astronomical Journal, vol. 9, issue 3—4, 294—298 [in Russian].
  42. Balyshev, М.А. (2018). The life and scientific work of Praskovia Parkhomenko, a Ukrainian astronomer: a historical and biographical study. Science and Science of Science, 1, 114—137 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/sofs2018.01.114
  43. Balyshev, М.А. (2018). Sic itur ad astra: Scientific biography and tragic destiny of astronomer Boris Evgenievich Semeykin (1900—1938). Studies in the History of Astronomy, 40, 127—169 [in Russian].
  44. Sawron, М.S. (1935). Atmospheric absorption of photographic rays. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 5, 49—54 [in Ukrainian].
  45. Barabashov, N.P. (1934). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1933. Astronomical Journal, vol. 11, issue 3, p. 270 [in Russian].
  46. Gnedin, Y.N., Borisov, N.V., Natsvlishvili, T.M. (1990). The Intermediate Polar V603-AQUILAE. Soviet Astronomy Letters, vol. 16, issue 7, 635—641 [in Russian].
  47. Sawron, М.S. (1938). Observation of Nova Herculis 1934. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 6, 47—49 [in Ukrainian].
  48. Dai, Z.B., Qian, S.B. (2009). Plausible explanations for the variations of orbital period in the old nova DQ Herculis. Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 503, issue 3, 883—888. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200810909
  49. Mikhaylov, V.О., Sawron, М.S. (1935). Photographic observations of comet 1935a Johnson on a 16-cm and 12-cm Zeiss astrographs at Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory of Kharkiv State University. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 3, p. 3 [in Ukrainian].
  50. (1936). Kometen und Meteore. 6689: Sternwarten und Beobachter Astronomischer Jahresbericht, 37, s. 184.
  51. Barabashov, N.P. (1936). About the expedition of the Astronomical Observatory of Kharkov State University to observe a total Solar eclipse on June 19, 1936. Mirovedenie, vol. 25, issue 6, 14—22 [in Russian].
  52. Sawron, М.S. (1938). Visual brightness of Nova 605 1936 Lacertae. Publications of the Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory, 6, 51—53 [in Ukrainian].
  53. Barabashov, N.P. (1938). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkov State University in 1937. Astronomical Journal, vol. 15, issue 3, 278—279 [in Russian].
  54. Barabashov, N.P. (1939). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkov State University in 1938. Astronomical Journal, vol. 16, issue 2, 112—113 [in Russian].
  55. Barabashov, N.P. (1940). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkov State University in 1939. Astronomical Journal, vol. 17, issue 3, 94—96 [in Russian].
  56. Naumov, I.А. (Ed.) (1991). History of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv State Pedagogical Institute (the 180th anniversary of the institute). Kharkov: Kharkov State Pedagogical Institute, 24 p. [in Russian].
  57. Barabashov, N.P. (1941). Report on the activities of the Astronomical Observatory Kharkiv State University in 1940. Astronomical Journal, vol. 18, issue 3, p. 267 [in Russian].
  58. Shachneva, E.V. (1969). Some issue of the history of H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv State Pedagogical Institute. Proceedings of the scientific session dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Institute. (pp. 31—33). Kharkiv: Kharkiv University Press [in Ukrainian].
  59. Оnischenko, О.S. (Ed.) (2007). History of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine (1941— 1945). Part 1. Кyiv, 808 p. [in Ukrainian].
  60. Оnischenko, О.S. (Ed.) (2007). History of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine (1941— 1945). Part 2. Кyiv, 576 p. [in Ukrainian].

Full Text (PDF)