MODERN HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE PROCESS OF ACCUMULATION OF EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE FIELD OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2021, 2(112): 103-116
Section: Science and technology history
Abstract: The article identifies the main phases in the accumulation of empirical knowledge in materials science as a basis for the starting scientific research in this area. The relevance of the study is due to the improper reflection of this issue in the scientific literature of recent years, because the existing publications on the influence of primitive knowledge about metals and alloys on the development of human civilization were published in the middle of the last century and devoted to the study of a certain historical period or a separate geographical territory. Research methods: analysis and synthesis, generalization and classification in archaeological periodization.
The history of the use of materials is examined from ancient times to the era of modern times. It is demonstrated that only in the XIX century scientists began to systematically investigate the active use of materials by man in historical periods of time, starting with the Stone Age. Achievements of archeometallurgy are considered. Information about the communities of “mining people”, in which the purposeful activity on the development of metals began, is given.
The geographical location of the first metallurgical productions is given. The “acquaintance” of mankind with copper, and later with alloys based on it, first of all copper with tin, is illustrated. The effect of arsenic on bronze color is analyzed. The reasons for stopping the use of arsenic bronze are traced. Information about the nomenclature of bronze products is given. The development of mining and metallurgical production and its impact on international communications and trade exchange are considered. Information on the melting of iron-based alloys, in particular in the Hallstatt and La Tene archaeological cultures, is presented. The origin of the word “iron” in different nations is revealed; the role of the ancient Celts in the spread of the use of iron products is shown. Information on the beginning of the manufacture of products from steel and cast iron in Europe, China, India, as well as the origin of the notion “cast iron” is considered.
The conditions for the melting of metals and alloys are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the use of bellows greatly facilitated the injection of high temperatures into blast furnaces. Based on the results of the analysis, it is confirmed that a new phase in the scientific research of metals and alloys began in the 17th century.
Keywords: materials science, bronze, iron, archeometallurgy, metallurgy.
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