DEVELOPING CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES: AN IMPORTANT STEP INTO THE FUTURE OF UKRAINE
Nauka naukozn. 2020, 1(107): 34-48
Section: Problems of the development of science and technology potential
Abstract: The leading countries of the world have long ago prioritized the development of science as a driving force for economic growth and for maintaining national security. The average share of R&D spending in GDP is two percent. However, even the most developed countries do not have a lot of resources to afford the fullest development in all areas of science. Therefore, there is a need to concentrate all efforts on the development of strategically important scientific directions and technologies, referred to as critical (key) technologies. Ukraine demonstrates a downward trend for the development of national science. Both the number of researchers and the share of R&D expenditure in GDP have been steadily decreasing. In 2017, these expenditures accounted for less than 0.5 % of GDP. However, despite the negative trends, the way out of such a difficult situation for Ukraine can be found in the development and implementation of critical technologies, in the defense sector in particular. The article shows the differences in approaches to making up the list of critical technologies of countries such as the USA, France, Germany and Russia. The list of US critical technologies takes into account the need for a significant long-term advantage of weapons systems. The European countries rely on the development of the research area and the deepening of cooperation between R&D and industry. Critical technologies in Russia have a great socio-economic importance or importance for the national defense and security. The paper describes the chronology of the development and implementation of critical technologies in Ukraine for the entire period of independence. A brief analysis was carried out and the main problems were identified that did not allow for the effective development and implementation of critical technologies in Ukraine. These are the lack of a common terminology and methodology for making the list of critical technologies, the scattered responsibility for their development, and the lack of the passport for each individual technology. All of this erects strong barriers for the effective development of critical technologies in the defense sector of Ukraine.
Keywords: critical technologies, key technologies, defense capacity, research and development, military-industrial complex, armaments and military equipment.
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