PRIORITIES OF FINANCING OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES IN UKRAINE BY BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR. Part I
Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2020, 2(108): 64-95
Section: Problems of science and technology potential
Abstract: The specificities of financing of science and technology activities in Ukraine by the domestic business enterprise sector are revealed through an in-depth analysis of statistical data over the last decade. It is shown that by organizational and legal forms of business, leading positions in attracting business funds are taken by state-owned enterprises, thus confirming an earlier argument of the author about the existence of the so called state-owned business enterprise sector in Ukraine. An analysis of the concentration of business funds in the research system of Ukraine shows the continuously narrowing range of science and technology organizations receiving these funds, in parallel with the shrinking resource base of outsider organizations. An extended database is used to test the author’s approach to identifying priority objects in the prism of the Classification of Science and Technology Activities. The approach is based on combining the necessary (amount of investment in a given research field) and sufficient (investment per science and technology organization in a given research field) conditions of the qualification procedure. The priority rank depends on where or not the individual value of a classification object exceeds the group value (average level in the respective group of research fields) or the average value for the research system of Ukraine. The applicability of this approach is tested on a set of factual data about research organizations of Ukraine. A research policy phenomenon deeply rooted in Ukraine, i. e. the practice of funding defense-purpose developments by the business circles, is highlighted. Hidden activities tending to increase the expenditures under study are revealed in the disciplinary aspect. It is found that in the group of natural sciences, objects with the top priority rank for the domestic business in 2015 were pharmaceutical and medical sciences, and industrial ecology as an object of sub-disciplinary level. In the group of technical sciences, objects with the highest demand from the domestic business (the first echelon of priority objects) at the subtype level of the abovementioned classification were aircraft and space rocket technologies; developments of military purposes; geodesy and mineral extraction. At the level of classification types, the priorities are added by hydraulic machines and hydraulic pneumatic units; radiolocation and optic-electronic systems; computerization of technological processes as a structural component of works in the field of computing engineering and computerization; devices and methods for measurement of thermal indicators; ventilation and lighting. The second echelon of priority objects includes science and technology works in the field of radio engineering and telecommunications, computing engineering, computerization and branch engineering.
Keywords: research system of Ukraine, science and technology activities, research and development, financing, business enterprise sector, proportion of distribution, priority.
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