National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Ukraine

Nauka naukozn. 2022, 4(118): 115–127

Section: Ukrainian archives
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: The article is devoted to the issue of “rootization” (Ukrainization), which found reflection in records of the local soviet authorities. This case study focuses on the Kharkiv Region, being the metropolitan one at that period. Subject to review are records (protocols) and transcripts of the city council sessions complemented by the transcripts and records of district conventions of Kharkiv region councils and their executive committees. The author believes that this type of sources, especially for 1920’s, features high level of frankness and allows to understand the viewpoint of deputies who were common workers, peasants and rank-and-fi le public officials not only from their particular addresses but from their remarks and shouts preserved in the transcripts. By investigating the above sources, the author comes to the conclusion that the problems with Ukrainization process, reflected in records of soviet authorities, have remained relevant by now, with some stories found therein showing similarities with recent past and present day. The most significant problems are as follows: impracticality of the initially set deadlines, which led to their further change and extension; poor competence of rank-and-file officials because of low wages; the unwillingness of soviet officials to study the official language, its insufficient application in everyday life resulting in the losses of already acquired competences and skills. Transition to the Ukrainian language was rather difficult in traditionally Russian-speaking Kharkiv even within the city council where the majority were Kharkiv workers. It is also remarkable that the criticism addressed to the authorities for insufficient Ukrainization tended to be pronounced in Russian rather than Ukrainian. An indicative problem was the one connected with Ukrainianization of the education that faced heavy obstacles due to the need for Ukrainianization of educators who taught technical subjects in the professional education. This problem was faced by the secondary education, but the situation was similar with the higher technical education (which was beyond the competence of local authorities).  At the same time, the existence of schools teaching in languages of national minorities in the then capital of the Soviet Ukraine was a remarkable feature of “rootization”.  The author demonstrates that records of local soviet authorities, verbatim records of sessions in particular, can off er a valuable source in exploring the Ukrainian national revival processes in 1920s.

Keywords: Ukrainian national revival in 1920s, Kharkiv region, “rootiration” policy, verbatim records and transcripts of local soviet authorities’ sessions, Ukrainization of state apparatus, Ukrainianization of education.


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