OLEKSANDR PALLADIN AS PRESIDENT OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR (1946–1962): THE STEPS OF ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS TO THE FOREFRONT OF THE WORLD SCIENCE
1 V.M. GAMALIIA
1 State University of Infrastructure and Technologies of the Ministry for Education and Science of Ukraine
Nauka naukozn. 2019, 3(105): 106-121
Section: Science and technology history
Abstract: The article offers a review of the state and characteristics of the Academy sector of the Ukrainian science & technology system in the post-war years during O.V. Palladin’s activities as President of the Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian SSR (1946–1962), which helped establish an underlying principle of comparative-evolutionary field in biochemistry: the principle of biochemical unity of the organic world. The Palladin’s contribution to biochemistry gives grounds to position him as a founder of the modern biochemical science.
It is demonstrated that apart from internal factors, peculiar features of the Academy sector in Ukraine in times of Palladin’s presidency were conditional on the external environment that had been subject to heavy ideological pressures from the communist power; the essence of economic, political and social factors with impact on the science & technology operation in Uk raine of that time are highlighted. An account of the life and scientific carrier of Palladin before his election as the president of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is given: his studies in Saint-Petersburg University, early work in the biochemistry field in the city of Kharkiv, his organizational and teaching activities before World War II; his work in Kharkiv Biochemical Institute, subsequently incorporated in the Academy of Sciences. A story of the Institute’s operation in the pre-war and war period is given.
A significant part of the article is devoted to the description of events in the post-war period (till the middle of 50s), which severely undermined genetics in the Soviet Union, and in the second half of 50s, i. e. in the period of the so called “Khrushchev thaw”, marked by the weakening political pressures on the science & technology sector.
The achievements of Ukrainian scientists in various research fields are analyzed: physics and chemistry, mathematics, biochemistry and genetics, radio physics and electronics, etc. Priority directions for the development of the Ukrainian science and technology in 1946–1962 are identified: nuclear physics, atomic energy, semiconductors, computer technology, rare and flying non-ferrous metals, plastics and artificial fiber, biochemistry of the nervous system, etc. The significance of Palladin’s work for further development and worldwide recognition of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is emphasized.
Keywords: Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, biochemistry, physiological science, genetics, institute of biochemistry.
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